Perry G. Phillips


Why is this study important?


The Bible is infallible and inerrant in the autographs, and the only rule of faith and practice

Genesis chapters 1 and 2 give us reliable, historical information regarding God's creative activity (Ps 19, Rom 1)

Present scientific method gives valid information regarding the universe. God is not trying to trick us or test our faith by planting bogus information in the universe concerning age.


Meaning of terms "day," "evening," "morning" (summary)
Length of day six
Scientific evidence


Meaning of terms (summary)
"Day" -- can mean period of time of unspecified length (Gen 2.4)
"evening" and "morning" -- used figuratively in numerous places (Ps 30.5; 49.14; 905b,6)  Conclusion: The terms "day," "evening," and morning" have legitimate figurative usage in the OT.

Length of day six
[much of this section is derived from John Snow, How Long is the Sixth Day?"
in Newman and Eckelmann 1989]

General comments on Gen 2
Activities on day six
Planting Eden: 2.8
Trees caused to grow: 2.9
Man works the garden: 2.15
Man is alone: 2.18
Man names the animals: 2.19,20a
(A note on how names are derived in OT)
Woman created

Use of expression "This is now ...": 2.23a
Better translated "Now at last ...", or "Now at length…"
Used numerous times in OT
<>(1) Genesis 18.32 As Abraham argues with the Lord about the impending destruction of Sodom, he asks the Lord not to be angry "this time," or "now at last," when requesting that Sodom not be destroyed if only ten righteous individuals are found within the city.
<>(2) Genesis 29.34,35 Leah uses this expression after the birth of her sons Levi and Judah. Recall that Leah was not loved by Jacob, but she felt that now she would be loved after giving birth to these two sons.
<>(3) Genesis 30.20 Again, the expression is used by Leah after the birth of Zebulun.
<>(4) Genesis 46.30 For many years Israel (Jacob) thought that his beloved son Joseph was dead, but then he learned that Joseph was alive in Egypt. Upon seeing his son, Israel states, "Now I am ready to die, since I have seen for myself that you are still alive." The word "now" is the same word used by Adam in Genesis 2.23.
<>(5) Exodus 9.27 After the seventh plague, Pharaoh urges Moses to end the plague by declaring, This time I have sinned." The expression "this time' is the same word used in Genesis 2.23.
<>(6) Exodus 10.17 Again, after the eighth plague, Pharaoh tries the same tactic as before.
<>(7) Judges 6.39 Our expression is used twice by Gideon when requesting that "now at last" the Lord not be angry with him for asking that the dew avoid the fleece and condense on the ground.
<>(8) Judges 15.3 Samson had experienced a time of contention with the Philistines which ended in his leaving his wife with her father and returning to the land of Israel. Some time later, Samson returned to his wife's house only to find that she was given to another man. Samson responds by declaring that "this time," or "now at last" he has a right to get even with the Philistines.
<>(9) Judges 16.18 Samson finally succumbs to Delilah's enticements and he confesses to her the source of his strength. Delilah calls the Philistine leaders to come "this time," for he told her everything.
<>(10) Judges 16.28 After Samson was taken to the temple to be mocked by the Philistines, he asks God "now at last" to give him the strength to collapse the temple.
<>Conclusion: The events of the sixth day and the expression "Now at last…"
<><>provide strong evidence that the sixth day was longer than 24 hours.
<>So why does any other day have to be 24 hours?


This is not an attempt to show that the universe or earth is billions of years old. Rather, the evidence which follows is presented to show unquestionable scientific data that the earth is older than the 10-20 thousand years claimed by young-earth creationists.


Light travel time
Distance - light travel time correlation
Fictitious history if universe is only a few thousand years old

Slowdown of earth's rotation
Tidal friction and the slowing of earth's spin
Projected increase in the number of days per year for past ages
Coral growth properties
Correlation between these. Note that this correlation depends on independent processes -- astronomy, biology, geology.


Varve clay deposits

How formed
Yearly cycle which gives rise to couplets
Significance of small particle settling

Specific varve clay formations

Salido, Castile, and Bell Canyon formations (Texas)
1467 foot formation. Containing 520,000 bands, or 260,000
couplets = = => 260,000 years

Assume Noah's Flood was actively depositing sediments for one year, or 365 days (a generous assumption).
Then 520,000 bands laid down in 365 days amounts to one band a minute, which is extremely unreasonable considering the fine particle nature of the bands and the turbulent flood waters.

Green River Formation (CO, UT, WY)

2500 foot formation containing 15 million bands, or 7.5 million couplets
= = => 7.5 million years. The varies lie on top of 25,000 feet of sedimentary strata, for a total depth of 27,500 feet of strata. It deposited in 365 days, then 75 feet per day was deposited.
For the varies, this amounts to a little over five (5) bands each second
-- a most unbelievable conclusion.
Also in the geologic column are found
Flamingo bones, coprolites (fossilized feces), foot prints,
and nesting sites matching those in present day E. Africa
Algal encrusted logs

Coral reefs

Reef formation
Difference in inner and outer reef
Difference in windward and leeward sides
Rate of growth of reefs

Present day reefs
4610 foot depth; formed in situ
Several erosion layers and their implication
Age of reef = depth divided by rate of growth:
4610 ft/ 8 mm/yr = 175,000 years
Similar analysis of Grand Bahama Reef indicates age as 750,000 years
These reefs are not precipitated

Formations clearly show growth
Not enough material could dissolve in the water to precipitate the reefs

Oceanic oozes
Composition and relation to settling time
In some areas oozes are 1200 feet deep and spread over many thousands of square miles
Rate of accumulation of oozes about one (1) inch per millennium
For 1200 foot depth, time of accumulation = 14 million years.

Conclusion: Unless we are willing to change completely today's physical laws, the evidence presented argues very strongly that the age of the universe and of the earth is much more than a few thousand years.


Hayward, Alan
1985 Creation and evolution: the facts and fallacies. London: Triangle Press.

Morton, Glenn
1987 "Geologic Challenges to a Young Earth" in Proceedings of the first international conference on creationism, Vol. Il: Technical symposium sessions and additional topics, ed. by Robert E. Walsh, Christopher L. Brooks, and Richard S. Crowell. Pittsburgh, PA: Creation Science Fellowship, Inc.

Newman, Robert C. and Herman Eckelmann
1989 Genesis one and the origin of the earth. Hatfield, PA: Interdisciplinary Biblical Research Institute.

Wiester, John
1983 The Genesis connection. Nashville: Nelson.

Wonderly, Daniel
1977 God's time-records in ancient sediments. Flint, Ml: Crystal Press.

1987 Neglect of geologic data: sedimentary strata compared with young-earth creationist writings. Hatfield, PA: Interdisciplinary Biblical Research Institute.

Van Till, Howard
1986 The fourth day. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.

Young, Davis
1977 Creation and the flood: an alternative to flood geology and theistic

evolution. Grand Rapids: Baker.
1982 Christianity and the age of the earth. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.