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Evolution
Nature and Scripture in Conflict?

by
Pattle P. T. Pun

Copyright © 1982 by The Zondervan Corporation, Grand Rapids, Michigan
Electronic Version Copyright ©  2002 by Interdisciplinary Biblical Research Institute

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Pun, Pattle P. T.
Evolution: nature and Scripture in conflict?
Includes index.
1. Bible and evolution. I. Title.
BS659.P86 231.7'65 81-19776
ISBN 0-310-42561-1 AACR2
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording, or any other except for brief quotations in printed reviews, without the prior permission of the publisher.

Edited by Dr. Russell R. Camp and Norma C. Camp
Designed by Martha Bentley

Printed in the United States of America


To the serious doubters


Contents

Figures 13

Tables 18

Foreword 21

Preface 23
 
 

Part I

Scientific Bases of the Theory of Evolution

CHAPTER 1  Historical Development of the Theory of Evolution 27
1.1 Antiquity of Evolutionary Thought 27
1.2 Definitions of Species 30
1.3 Mechanisms of Evolutionary Changes: Lamarckism vs. Mendelism 32
1.4 Classical Mutation Theory vs. Neo-Darwinian Evolution 42
    1.4.1 Mutation 42
    1.4.2 Recombination 43
    1.4.3 Agnostic Period 45
    1.4.4 Stabilizing Selection 46
    1.4.5 Directional Selection 46
    1.4.6 Disruptive Selection 46
1.5 Microevolution, Macroevolution, and the Synthetic Theory 48
    1.5.1 Speciation 51
    1.5.2 Synthetic Theory 53
[8]

CHAPTER 2  Evidence for Evolution 55
2.1 Antiquity of the Earth 55
    2.1.1 Principle of Uniformitarianism 55
        a) Modern Geology 56
        b) Historic Geology 56
        c) Contemporary View of Uniformitarianism 57
    2.1.2 Dating of Geological Column 57
        a) Relative Dating 57
        b) Absolute Dating 58
            (1) Nature of Radioactivity 60
            (2) Quantitation of Radioactive Decay and Age Determination 61
          (3) Conventional Techniques of Radiometric Dating 65
                (a) Uranium-lead, Thorium-lead, Lead-lead Methods 67
                (b) Potassium-argon Method 69
                (c) Rudibium-strontium 70
                (d) Carbon-14 70
            (4) Reliability of Age Determination and the Geological Column of the Earth 71
2.2 Paleontological Evidence 80
    2.2.1 Problems Encountered by Paleontologists 80
        a) Incompleteness of the Fossil Record 80
        b) The Somewhat Arbitrary Fossil Classification Scheme 82
    2.2.2 General Distribution of Fossils in the Geological Column 86
2.3 Evidence from Physical Anthropology 94
    2.3.1 Pliopithecus and Dryopithecus 97
    2.3.2 Ramapithecus 98
    2.3.3 Australopithecus 101
    2.3.4 Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis108
        a) Homo erectus Discussed 108
        b) Homo neanderthalensis Discussed 114
2.4 Evidence from Biogeography 118
2.5 Evidence of Comparative Structure and Function 128
    2.5.1 Comparative Cellular Structure and Function 130
    2.5.2 Comparative Gross Anatomy 132
        a) Homologous Structures 132
        b) Development of Vertebra 132
        c) Evolution of the Heart 135
        d) Vestigial or Rudimentary Organs 137
    2.5.3 Comparative Embryological Development 143
2.6 Evidence from Molecular Biology and Genetics 145
    2.6.1 DNA as Genetic Material 145
    2.6.2 Gene Expression and the Genetic Code 148
    2.6.3 Molecular Principles of Mutation 158
        a) Nucleotide Substitution 159
            (1) Tautomeric Shift 159
            (2) Base Deamination 160
            (3) Mutator Gene Effect 160
            (4) Irradiation Effect 162
        b) Nucleotide Deletion 162
    2.6.4 Interrelationship of Molecular Mutations 163
    2.6.5 Nature of Chromosomal Mutation 164
    2.6.6 Evolution and Genetic Equilibrium 168
        a) Mutation Pressure 170
        b) Selection Pressure 170
        c) Genetic Drift 171

CHAPTER 3  A Critical Evaluation of the Biological Theory of Evolution 174
3.1 Criteria to Evaluate the Biological Theory of Evolution 174
3.2 Evaluation of Microevolution (The Special Theory of Evolution) 176
    3.2.1 Empirical Adequacy 176
        a) Mutation as the Raw Material of Evolution 176
        b) Selection as the Driving Force for Evolution 180
        c) Balancing Selection 183
    3.2.2 Rational Coherency 185
        a) Domestication 185
        b) Speciation in Drosophila 187
        c) Distribution of Skin Color 188
3.3 Evaluation of Macroevolution 191
    3.3.1 Empirical Inadequacy 191
        a) Demise of the Theory of Spontaneous Generation 191
        b) Difficulties in Accounting for the Abiogenesis of the First Cell 195
[10]   c) Weak Empirical Documentation of Evolution above the Species Level
            (Macroevolution, Transpecific Evolution) 201
        d) Inconsistency of Molecular Biological Data with Data Supporting
            Macroevolution 205
            (1) Method of DNA Hybridization 207
            (2) Immunological Techniques 207
            (3) Electrophoretic Measurements 208
            (4) Amino Acid Sequencing of Proteins 209
    3.3.2 Rational Incoherency 215
        a) Insufficiency of Natural Selection to Account for Macroevolution 215
            (1) Concept of Neutral Mutation 215
            (2) Concept of Regulatory Mutation 221
            (3) Concept of Systemic Mutation 222
            (4) Concept of Species Selection 224
        b) Chance as the Teleological Explanation of Evolution 226
        c) Empirical Unfalsifiability of the Theory of Organic Evolution 227
 
 

Part II
A Christian View of the Origin of Life

CHAPTER 4  Christian World View and Its Contribution to the Scientific Enterprise 233
4.1 Christian Theism, Monism, and Dualism 233
4.2 Quest for Truth 235
    4.2.1 Rationalism 235
    4.2.2 Empiricism 236
    4.2.3 Rational Empiricism 237
4.3 The Relationships of Various World Views with the Development of Modern Science 237
    4.3.1 Platonic Dualism 237
    4.3.2 Aristotelian Monism 237
    4.3.3 Mechanistic World View 238
    4.3.4 Christian Theistic World View 238

CHAPTER 5  Interpretation of the Genesis Account of Creation and the Flood 240
5.1 Some Exegetical Considerations [11] 240
5.2 Orthodox View 241
5.3 Four Exegetical Principles 242

CHAPTER 6  Interpretation of the Genesis Account by Evangelical Scholarship 246
6.1 Three Tenets 246
    6.1.1 Fiat Creationism 246
    6.1.2 Theistic Evolutionism 247
    6.1.3 Progressive Creationism 247

CHAPTER 7  Justification of a Personal Point of View 251
7.1 The Hurdles 252
    7.1.1 Fiat Creationists and the Earth's Age 252
    7.1.2 Theistic Evolutionists and Creation 252
    7.1.3 Progressive Creationists' View on the Earth's Age and Creation 254
        a) How long were the creation days in Genesis? 254
        b) Genealogies of the Bible 256
    7.1.4 Creation Account in Light of the Findings of Modern Science 260
        a) Day-age Interpretation of Creation 260
        b) Overlapping Day-age and Modified Intermittent-day Models 261
    7.1.5 Difficult Problems in the Attempts to Harmonize the Bible and Science 266
        a) Antiquity of Humans 266
        b) What Is the Extent of the Noachin Deluge? 268
            (1) Universal Flood 268
            (2) Local Flood 268

Part III

Brief Survey of the Interrelationship of Naturalism and Darwinism

CHAPTER 8  Evolution as a Paradigm to Explain Human Experience 275
8.1 Evolutionary Thinking in Philosophy 277
8.2 Evolutionary Thinking in Educational Theories 279
8.3 Social Evolutionism 280
8.4 Evolutionary Thinking in Economics 282
8.5 Evolutionary Thinking in Political Theories 283
8.6 Evolutionary Thinking in Psychology 285
8.7 Evolutionary Thinking in Religion 287

Part IV

A Christian Attitude on Evolution

CHAPTER 9  Criteria for Forming Opinions on Evolution 295
9.1 To Be Well Informed Concerning the Scientific Bases of Evolutionary Theory 295
9.2 To Understand the Intellectual Mind of the Post-Christian Era 296
9.3 To Be Exposed to Various Interpretations of the Genesis Account 297
9.4 To Be Aware of the Basic Problem 298
 

Appendix: The Length of the Creative Days 302

Glossary 314

Abbreviations 318

Index 320